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Proceedings Paper

Spatiotemporal models for the simulation of infrared backgrounds
Author(s): Don Mitchell Wilkes; James A. Cadzow; R. Alan Peters; Xingkang Li
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Paper Abstract

It is highly desirable for designers of automatic target recognizers (ATRs) to be able to test their algorithms on targets superimposed on a wide variety of background imagery. Background imagery in the infrared spectrum is expensive to gather from real sources, consequently, there is a need for accurate models for producing synthetic IR background imagery. We have developed a model for such imagery that will do the following: Given a real, infrared background image, generate another image, distinctly different from the one given, that has the same general visual characteristics as well as the first and second-order statistics of the original image. The proposed model consists of a finite impulse response (FIR) kernel convolved with an excitation function, and histogram modification applied to the final solution. A procedure for deriving the FIR kernel using a signal enhancement algorithm has been developed, and the histogram modification step is a simple memoryless nonlinear mapping that imposes the first order statistics of the original image onto the synthetic one, thus the overall model is a linear system cascaded with a memoryless nonlinearity. It has been found that the excitation function relates to the placement of features in the image, the FIR kernel controls the sharpness of the edges and the global spectrum of the image, and the histogram controls the basic coloration of the image. A drawback to this method of simulating IR backgrounds is that a database of actual background images must be collected in order to produce accurate FIR and histogram models. If this database must include images of all types of backgrounds obtained at all times of the day and all times of the year, the size of the database would be prohibitive. In this paper we propose improvements to the model described above that enable time-dependent modeling of the IR background. This approach can greatly reduce the number of actual IR backgrounds that are required to produce a sufficiently accurate mathematical model for synthesizing a similar IR background for different times of the day. Original and synthetic IR backgrounds will be presented. Previous research in simulating IR backgrounds was performed by Strenzwilk, et al., Botkin, et al., and Rapp. The most recent work of Strenzwilk, et al. was based on the use of one-dimensional ARMA models for synthesizing the images. Their results were able to retain the global statistical and spectral behavior of the original image, but the synthetic image was not visually very similar to the original. The research presented in this paper is the result of an attempt to improve upon their results, and represents a significant improvement in quality over previously obtained results.

Paper Details

Date Published: 21 September 1992
PDF: 15 pages
Proc. SPIE 1687, Characterization, Propagation, and Simulation of Sources and Backgrounds II, (21 September 1992); doi: 10.1117/12.137856
Show Author Affiliations
Don Mitchell Wilkes, Vanderbilt Univ. (United States)
James A. Cadzow, Vanderbilt Univ. (United States)
R. Alan Peters, Vanderbilt Univ. (United States)
Xingkang Li, Vanderbilt Univ. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 1687:
Characterization, Propagation, and Simulation of Sources and Backgrounds II
Dieter Clement; Wendell R. Watkins, Editor(s)

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