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Journal of Biomedical Optics • Open Access

Three-dimensional, distendable bladder phantom for optical coherence tomography and white light cystoscopy
Author(s): Kristen L. Lurie; Gennifer T. Smith; Saara A. Khan; Joseph C. Liao; Audrey K. Bowden

Paper Abstract

We describe a combination of fabrication techniques and a general process to construct a three-dimensional (3-D) phantom that mimics the size, macroscale structure, microscale surface topology, subsurface microstructure, optical properties, and functional characteristics of a cancerous bladder. The phantom also includes features that are recognizable in white light (i.e., the visual appearance of blood vessels), making it suitable to emulate the bladder for emerging white light+optical coherence tomography (OCT) cystoscopies and other endoscopic procedures of large, irregularly shaped organs. The fabrication process has broad applicability and can be generalized to OCT phantoms for other tissue types or phantoms for other imaging modalities. To this end, we also enumerate the nuances of applying known fabrication techniques (e.g., spin coating) to contexts (e.g., nonplanar, 3-D shapes) that are essential to establish their generalizability and limitations. We anticipate that this phantom will be immediately useful to evaluate innovative OCT systems and software being developed for longitudinal bladder surveillance and early cancer detection.

Paper Details

PDF: 10 pages
J. Biomed. Opt. 19(3) 036009 doi: 1117/1.JBO.19.3.036009
Published in: Journal of Biomedical Optics Volume 19, Issue 3, March 2014
Show Author Affiliations
Kristen L. Lurie, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Gennifer T. Smith, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Saara A. Khan, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Joseph C. Liao, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Audrey K. Bowden, Stanford Univ. (United States)


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