Optical EngineeringDifferential absorption and Raman lidar for water vapor profile measurements: a review
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Differential absorption lidar and Raman lidar have been applied to the range-resolved measurements of water vapor density for more than 20 years. During this period, there have been considerable advances in laser and lidar technology, as well as in the understanding of the factors required to optimize both lidar techniques for water vapor measurements. Results have been obtained using both lidar techniques that have led to improved understanding of water vapor distributions in the atmosphere. This paper reviews the theory of the measurements, including the sources of systematic and random error; the progress in lidar technology and techniques during that period, including a brief look at some of the lidar systems in development or proposed; and the steps being taken to improve such lidar systems.