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Optical Engineering

Development of technologies for production of high quality grazing incidence x-ray mirrors on graphite epoxy substrates
Author(s): Wilhelm J. Egle; Horst Bulla; Dietmar Scheulen; Bernd Aschenbach; Heinrich W. Braeuninger
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Paper Abstract

The design concept of the mirrors for the European Space Agency's high throughput x-ray spectroscopy mission XMM is characterized by thin (?1 mm) graphite epoxy shells as the mirror structure and a replication technique to produce the mirror surface. The mirror microroughness is specified to ? ?0.5 nm (rms); profile errors should not exceed ±2.5 arcsec. An ESA research study has been performed by Carl Zeiss and subcontractors (Dornier GmbH, Max Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik/Garching, University of Leicester, X-ray Astronomical Group, Dept. of Physics) to clarify whether graphite epoxy mirror structures are able to meet the tight XMM mirror figuring and surface requirements and to determine what measures have to be taken to overcome the typical problems associated with composite materials used as mirror substrates, such as print-through of fibers and inner structure, short term/long term stability, and water absorption and outgassing. The starting conditions and progress during development are described. The present status of optical and x-ray performance of replicated flat graphite epoxy mirrors is reported, and aspects for further improvement of graphite epoxy mirrors is discussed.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 October 1990
PDF: 7 pages
Opt. Eng. 29(10) doi: 10.1117/12.55726
Published in: Optical Engineering Volume 29, Issue 10
Show Author Affiliations
Wilhelm J. Egle, Carl Zeiss (Germany)
Horst Bulla, Carl Zeiss (Germany)
Dietmar Scheulen, Dornier GmbH (Germany)
Bernd Aschenbach, Max Planck Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik (Germany)
Heinrich W. Braeuninger, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik (Germany)

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