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Journal of Biomedical Optics • Open Access

Directly modulated diode laser frequency doubled in a KTP waveguide as an excitation source for CO2 and O2 phase fluorometric sensors
Author(s): Raja Holavanahali; Romauld M.; Gary M. Carter; Govind Rao; Jeffrey Sipior; Joseph R. Lakowicz; John D. Bierlein

Paper Abstract

A directly modulated infrared diode laser was frequency doubled in an intracavity KTP quasi-phase matched waveguide, producing modulated laser light at 425 nm, which was subsequently employed for phase fluorometric detection of CO2 and O2 gases. The frequency-doubled source was coupled to a single optical fiber to deliver the excitation light to the sensor mounted at the fiber tip. Fluorescence from the sensor returned through the same fiber to a photodetector. This compact, low-power source provided continuously tunable modulation frequencies up to 200 MHz. In the detection of CO2 , the doubled infrared diode laser produced 425-nm light that was modulated to a depth of 27% at a modulation frequency of 95 MHz.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 January 1996
PDF: 7 pages
J. Biomed. Opt. 1(1) doi: 10.1117/12.227105
Published in: Journal of Biomedical Optics Volume 1, Issue 1
Show Author Affiliations
Raja Holavanahali, Univ. of Maryland/Baltimore (United States)
Romauld M., University of Maryland (United States)
Gary M. Carter, Univ. of Maryland (United States)
Govind Rao, Univ. of Maryland (United States)
Jeffrey Sipior, Univ. of Maryland/Baltimore School of Medicine (United States)
Joseph R. Lakowicz, Univ. of Maryland/Baltimore School of Medicine (United States)
John D. Bierlein, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc. (United States)

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