Optical EngineeringGeometric optical limits in the synthesis of planar kinoform lenses for axial stigmatism
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The phenomenon of total internal reflection sets practical limits for blazing in the case of transmission gratings. Similar effects can be observed in the case of kinoform lenses. The effects manifest themselves in limiting the object distance, the image distance, or the semidiameter of the kinoform lens. These limits are set by the refractive index of the kinoform material and the imaging geometry. This paper presents the results of our investigations on various aspects of these geometric optical limits in the case of planar kinoform lenses for stigmatic imaging between any two prespecified points on the axis.