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Optical Engineering

Study of optically waveguiding structures formed in potassium titanyl phosphate by ion exchange
Author(s): Andrey A. Lipovskii; Nikolai V. Nikonorov; Vladimir A. Lokalov
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Paper Abstract

Ion-exchanged KTiOPO4 (KTP) planar optical waveguides are formed in X, Y, and Z cuts of KTP single crystals with Rb+ -> K+, Cs+ -> K+, and Ag+ -> K+ ion exchanges from nitrate melts. Waveguide modes, index profiles, and birefringence of the waveguides are studied with the integrated optics technique. Electron probe microanalysis is applied to determine an elemental composition of the ion-exchanged structures and x-ray diffractometry is used to study crystalline structure of the waveguides. The research enabled us to produce KTP optical waveguides by silver ion diffusion for the first time. In addition, the residual potassium concentrations after the ion exchange are measured and the distribution profiles of Cs and Rb atoms and positions of the atoms in the KTP lattice are characterized. A study of the unit cell deformations accompanied by birefringence measurements enabled us to clarify differences in Rb+ -> K+ and Cs+ -> K+ ion exchanges. A novel approach that would produce a KTP optical waveguide with higher index increase and better crystalline perfection than Rb+ -> K+ and Cs+ -> K+ ion exchanges is proposed.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 August 1994
PDF: 6 pages
Opt. Eng. 33(8) doi: 10.1117/12.173570
Published in: Optical Engineering Volume 33, Issue 8
Show Author Affiliations
Andrey A. Lipovskii, St. Petersburg Technical Univ. (Russia)
Nikolai V. Nikonorov, S.I. Vavilov State Optical Institute (Russia)
Vladimir A. Lokalov, S.I. Vavilov State Optical Institute (Russia)

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