Share Email Print

Optical Engineering

Phase contrast and differential interference contrast instrumentation and applications in cell, developmental, and marine biology
Author(s): Heinz Gundlach
Format Member Price Non-Member Price
PDF $20.00 $25.00
cover GOOD NEWS! Your organization subscribes to the SPIE Digital Library. You may be able to download this paper for free. Check Access

Paper Abstract

Progress in modern light microscopy by means of new optic design and optical contrast-enhancement techniques [phase contrast (PhC), differential interference contrast (DIC), polarization, reflection] in combination with inverted microscopes and simultaneously with epifluorescence is described. Today, PhC and DIC optics are available for high-resolution light microscopy up to a numerical aperture of 1.4 (oil) as well as for long working distance optics mainly combined with inverted microscopes. The application of DIC facilitates high-resolution optical microscopy of living cell components, which can be isolated by selective micropreparation for extended microscopic analysis. The high contrast and the use of the full numerical aperture of the DIC optics make it possible to obtain a series of optical sections through rather thick living specimens. Optoelectronic techniques such as video-enhanced contrast microscopy and laser scanning microscopy in combination with optical contrast-enhancement methods are expanding into a new dimension that overlaps the low range of electron microscopy magnification but includes the use of living material.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 December 1993
PDF: 6 pages
Opt. Eng. 32(12) doi: 10.1117/12.142945
Published in: Optical Engineering Volume 32, Issue 12
Show Author Affiliations
Heinz Gundlach, Carl Zeiss (Germany)

© SPIE. Terms of Use
Back to Top