Optical Engineering • Open AccessAberration properties of odd-order surfaces in optical design
We theoretically represent the effectiveness of the odd-order surface for optical designs via an aberration theory. The theory employs an expression of the odd-order surface with aberration coefficients, which are derived by power-series expansion of wavefront aberration with respect to the coordinates of optical surfaces. This expression allows us to understand the aberration characteristics of odd-order surfaces. By applying this aberration theory to the design of extreme ultraviolet lithography optics, we show that odd-order surfaces are effective in reducing higher-order aberrations with fewer coefficients than even-order surfaces do.