Optical EngineeringOptical 1’s and 2’s complement devices using lithium-niobate-based waveguide
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Optical 1’s and 2’s complement devices are proposed with the help of lithium-niobate-based Mach–Zehnder interferometers. It has a powerful capability of switching an optical signal from one port to the other port with the help of an electrical control signal. The paper includes the optical conversion scheme using sets of optical switches. 2’s complement is common in computer systems and is used in binary subtraction and logical manipulation. The operation of the circuits is studied theoretically and analyzed through numerical simulations. The truth table of these complement methods is verified with the beam propagation method and MATLAB® simulation results.