Optical EngineeringNonparaxial, three-dimensional, and fractal speckle
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Speckle can be modeled by analyzing the statistics of an image of a phase object such as a rough surface. The image can be calculated using the coherent transfer function of the imaging system and the angular spectrum representation. This approach gives a three-dimensional image, and includes the effects of high numerical aperture and the finite depth of the structure. In addition to Gaussian correlation, different correlation coefficients can be assumed, including fractal distributions, such as exponential correlation.