Optical EngineeringFormation mechanism of self-organized nanogratings on a titanium surface using femtosecond laser pulses
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We demonstrate the formation of self-organized nanogratings on a titanium surface under the irradiation of a single-beam femtosecond laser. Self-formed, periodic nanogratings are printed on a titanium surface by varying the average pulse energy, pulse width, and number of laser pulses in each spot. The direction of the nanogratings is perpendicular to the direction of the laser polarization. The nanograting period shows obvious dependence on the average pulse energy, pulse width, and number of laser pulses. The period of the self-organized nanogratings shows an increasing trend with the increase of laser energy and pulse width, and a decreasing trend with an increase of number of applied laser pulses. We qualitatively explain the formation mechanism of the self-organized nanogratings and their dependence on various laser parameters.