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Journal of Applied Remote Sensing

On-orbit noise characterization of MODIS reflective solar bands
Author(s): Amit Angal; Xiaoxiong J. Xiong; Junqiang Sun; Xu Geng
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Paper Abstract

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), launched on the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts, was designed to collect complementary and comprehensive measurements of the Earth’s properties on a global scale. The 20 reflective solar bands (RSBs), covering a wavelength range from 0.41 to 2.1 μm, are calibrated on-orbit using regularly scheduled solar diffuser (SD) observations. Although primarily used for on-orbit gain derivation, the SD observations also facilitate the characterization of the detector signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In addition to the calibration requirement of 2% for the reflectance factors and 5% for the radiances, the required SNRs are also specified for all RSB at their typical scene radiances. A methodology to characterize the on-orbit SNR for the MODIS RSB is presented. Overall performance shows that a majority of the RSB continue to meet the specification, therefore performing well. A temporal decrease in the SNR, observed in the short-wavelength bands, is attributed primarily to the decrease in their detector responses. With the exception of the inoperable and noisy detectors in band 6 identified prelaunch, the detectors of Aqua MODIS RSB perform better than Terra MODIS. The approach formulated for on-orbit SNR characterization can also be used by other sensors that use on-board SDs for their on-orbit calibration (e.g., Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership [SNPP]-Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite).

Paper Details

Date Published: 6 October 2015
PDF: 13 pages
J. Appl. Remote Sens. 9(1) 094092 doi: 10.1117/1.JRS.9.094092
Published in: Journal of Applied Remote Sensing Volume 9, Issue 1
Show Author Affiliations
Amit Angal, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States)
Xiaoxiong J. Xiong, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Junqiang Sun, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Global Science & Technology, Inc. (United States)
Xu Geng, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (United States)


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