Journal of Photonics for Energy • Open AccessDesign principles for highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes
Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) show potential as the next-generation solid-state lighting technology. A major barrier to widespread adoption at this point is the efficiency droop that occurs for OLEDs at practical brightness (∼5000 cd/m2) levels necessary for general lighting. We highlight recent progress in highly efficient OLEDs at high brightness, where improvements are made by managing excitons in these devices through rational device design. General design principles for both white and monochrome OLEDs are discussed based on recent device architectures that have been successfully implemented. We expect that an improved understanding of exciton dynamics in OLEDs in combination with innovative device design will drive future development.