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Journal of Photonics for Energy • Open Access

Transparent electrodes for organic optoelectronic devices: a review
Author(s): Weiran Cao; Jian Li; Hongzheng Chen; Jiangeng Xue

Paper Abstract

Transparent conductive electrodes are one of the essential components for organic optoelectronic devices, including photovoltaic cells and light-emitting diodes. Indium-tin oxide (ITO) is the most common transparent electrode in these devices due to its excellent optical and electrical properties. However, the manufacturing of ITO film requires precious raw materials and expensive processes, which limits their compatibility with mass production of large-area, low-cost devices. The optical/electrical properties of ITO are strongly dependent on the deposition processes and treatment conditions, whereas its brittleness and the potential damage to underlying films during deposition also present challenges for its use in flexible devices. Recently, several other transparent conductive materials, which have various degrees of success relative to commercial applications have been developed to address these issues. Starting from the basic properties of ITO and the effect of various ITO surface modification methods, here we review four different groups of materials, doped metal oxides, thin metals, conducting polymers, and nanomaterials (including carbon nanotubes, graphene, and metal nanowires), that have been reported as transparent electrodes in organic optoelectronic materials. Particular emphasis is given to their optical/electrical and other material properties, deposition techniques, and applications in organic optoelectronic devices.

Paper Details

Date Published: 30 October 2014
PDF: 28 pages
J. Photon. Energy. 4(1) 040990 doi: 10.1117/1.JPE.4.040990
Published in: Journal of Photonics for Energy Volume 4, Issue 1
Show Author Affiliations
Weiran Cao, Univ. of Florida (United States)
Jian Li, Arizona State Univ. (United States)
Hongzheng Chen, Zhejiang Univ. (China)
Jiangeng Xue, Univ. of Florida (United States)
Zhejiang Univ. (China)


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