Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS • Open AccessDevice-level and module-level three-dimensional integrated circuits created using oblique processing
This paper demonstrates that another class of three-dimensional integrated circuits (3-D-ICs) exists, distinct from through-silicon-via-centric and monolithic 3-D-ICs. Furthermore, it is possible to create devices that are 3-D “at the device level” (i.e., with active channels oriented in each of the three coordinate axes), by performing standard CMOS fabrication operations at an angle with respect to the wafer surface into high aspect ratio silicon substrates using membrane projection lithography (MPL). MPL requires only minimal fixturing changes to standard CMOS equipment, and no change to current state-of-the-art lithography. Eliminating the constraint of two-dimensional planar device architecture enables a wide range of interconnect topologies which could help reduce interconnect resistance/capacitance, and potentially improve performance.