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Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS

Platinum and palladium oxalates: positive-tone extreme ultraviolet resists
Author(s): Miriam Sortland; Jodi Hotalen; Ryan Del Re; James Passarelli; Michael Murphy; Tero S. Kulmala; Yasin Ekinci; Mark Neisser; Daniel A. Freedman; Robert L. Brainard
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Paper Abstract

Here, we present platinum and palladium mononuclear complexes with EUV photosensitivity and lithographic performance. Many platinum and palladium complexes show little or no EUV sensitivity; however, we have found that metal carbonates and metal oxalates (L2M(CO3) and L2M(C2O4); M=Pt or Pd) are sensitive to EUV. The metal carbonates give negative-tone behavior. The most interesting result is that the metal oxalates give the first positive-tone EUV resists based on mononuclear organometallic compounds. In particular, (dppm)Pd(C2O4) (dppm=1,1-bis(diphenylphosphino)methane) (23) prints 30-nm dense lines with Esize of 50  mJ/cm2. Derivatives of (23) were synthesized to explore the relationship between the core metal and the resist sensitivity. The study showed that palladium-based resists are more sensitive than platinum-based resists. The photoreaction has been investigated for two of our most promising resists, (dppm)Pd(C2O4) (23) and (Ph2EtP)2PdC2O4 (27). Our experiments suggest the loss of CO2 and the formation of a zerovalent L4Pd complex upon exposure to light. We have identified dppm2Pd(δ(P)23.6) as the main photoproduct for (23) and (Ph2EtP)4Pd (δ(P)32.7) as the main photoproduct for (27).

Paper Details

Date Published: 24 December 2015
PDF: 13 pages
J. Micro/Nanolith. 14(4) 043511 doi: 10.1117/1.JMM.14.4.043511
Published in: Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS Volume 14, Issue 4
Show Author Affiliations
Miriam Sortland, SUNY CNSE/SUNYIT (United States)
Jodi Hotalen, SUNY Polytechnic Institute (United States)
Ryan Del Re, SUNY CNSE/SUNYIT (United States)
James Passarelli, SUNY CNSE/SUNYIT (United States)
Michael Murphy, SUNY CNSE/SUNYIT (United States)
Tero S. Kulmala, Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland)
Yasin Ekinci, Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland)
Mark Neisser, SUNY Poly SEMATECH (United States)
Daniel A. Freedman, State Univ. of New York at New Paltz (United States)
Robert L. Brainard, SUNY CNSE/SUNYIT (United States)

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