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Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS

Critical dimension uniformity and contact edge roughness in extreme ultraviolet lithography: effect of photoacid generator, sensitizer and quencher
Author(s): Vijaya-Kumar Murugesan Kuppuswamy; Vassilios Constantoudis; Evangelos Gogolides; Alessandro V. Pret; Roel Gronheid
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Paper Abstract

One of the main challenges for developing extreme ultraviolet resists is to satisfy critical dimension uniformity (CDU) and sidewall roughness of contacts to the allowable limit. To this end, further understanding of the effects of resist ingredients on CDU and contact edge roughness (CER) is required. We investigate the effects of a photoacid generator (PAG), sensitizer and quencher concentrations on the CDU and CER. We find that the dependencies of CDU on sensitizer and quencher are dominated by photon shot noise (PSN) effects whereas a more complicated interplay between PSN and PAG distribution statistics should be considered in the dependence of CDU on PAG concentration. The estimated CER parameters [root mean square (RMS) value and correlation length ξ ] exhibit a merging trend when plotted against the final critical dimension (CD). In addition, RMS value increases with exposure dose and PAG loading contrary to shot noise expectations. Power spectrum analysis reveals the dominant contribution of low-frequency undulations to CER, which is attributed to the enhanced interaction along specific directions between the aerial image and/or acid kinetics of nearby contacts. This inter-contact effect is further intensified with CD for fixed pitch and may explain the observed CER behavior.

Paper Details

Date Published: 26 April 2013
PDF: 11 pages
J. Micro/Nanolith. 12(2) 023003 doi: 10.1117/1.JMM.12.2.023003
Published in: Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS Volume 12, Issue 2
Show Author Affiliations
Vijaya-Kumar Murugesan Kuppuswamy, National Ctr. for Scientific Research Demokritos (Greece)
Vassilios Constantoudis, National Ctr. for Scientific Research Demokritos (Greece)
Evangelos Gogolides, National Ctr. for Scientific Research Demokritos (Greece)
Alessandro V. Pret, IMEC (Belgium)
Roel Gronheid, IMEC (Belgium)

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