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Journal of Medical Imaging

Experimental validation of L-shell x-ray fluorescence computed tomography imaging: phantom study
Author(s): Magdalena Bazalova-Carter; Moiz Ahmad; Lei Xing; Rebecca Fahrig
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Paper Abstract

Thanks to the current advances in nanoscience, molecular biochemistry, and x-ray detector technology, x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) has been considered for molecular imaging of probes containing high atomic number elements, such as gold nanoparticles. The commonly used XFCT imaging performed with K-shell x rays appears to have insufficient imaging sensitivity to detect the low gold concentrations observed in small animal studies. Low energy fluorescence L-shell x rays have exhibited higher signal-to-background ratio and appeared as a promising XFCT mode with greatly enhanced sensitivity. The aim of this work was to experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of L-shell XFCT imaging and to assess its achievable sensitivity. We built an experimental L-shell XFCT imaging system consisting of a miniature x-ray tube and two spectrometers, a silicon drift detector (SDD), and a CdTe detector placed at ±120  deg with respect to the excitation beam. We imaged a 28-mm-diameter water phantom with 4-mm-diameter Eppendorf tubes containing gold solutions with concentrations of 0.06 to 0.1% Au. While all Au vials were detectable in the SDD L-shell XFCT image, none of the vials were visible in the CdTe L-shell XFCT image. The detectability limit of the presented L-shell XFCT SDD imaging setup was 0.007% Au, a concentration observed in small animal studies.

Paper Details

Date Published: 8 October 2015
PDF: 7 pages
J. Med. Img. 2(4) 043501 doi: 10.1117/1.JMI.2.4.043501
Published in: Journal of Medical Imaging Volume 2, Issue 4
Show Author Affiliations
Magdalena Bazalova-Carter, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Univ. of Victoria (Canada)
Moiz Ahmad, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Lei Xing, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Rebecca Fahrig, Stanford Health Care (United States)

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