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Journal of Biomedical Optics • Open Access • new

Sulfates as chromophores for multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging phantoms
Author(s): Martina B. Fonseca; Lu An; Benjamin T. Cox

Paper Abstract

As multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging becomes increasingly widely used to obtain quantitative estimates, the need for validation studies conducted on well-characterized experimental phantoms becomes ever more pressing. One challenge that such studies face is the design of stable, well-characterized phantoms and absorbers with properties in a physiologically realistic range. This paper performs a full experimental characterization of aqueous solutions of copper and nickel sulfate, whose properties make them close to ideal as chromophores in multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging phantoms. Their absorption varies linearly with concentration, and they mix linearly. The concentrations needed to yield absorption values within the physiological range are below the saturation limit. The shape of their absorption spectra makes them useful analogs for oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin. They display long-term photostability (no indication of bleaching) as well as resistance to transient effects (no saturable absorption phenomena), and are therefore suitable for exposure to typical pulsed photoacoustic light sources, even when exposed to the high number of pulses required in scanning photoacoustic imaging systems. In addition, solutions with tissue-realistic, predictable, and stable scattering can be prepared by mixing sulfates and Intralipid, as long as an appropriate emulsifier is used. Finally, the Grüneisen parameter of the sulfates was found to be larger than that of water and increased linearly with concentration.

Paper Details

Date Published: 23 December 2017
PDF: 9 pages
J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12) 125007 doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.22.12.125007
Published in: Journal of Biomedical Optics Volume 22, Issue 12
Show Author Affiliations
Martina B. Fonseca, Univ. College London (United Kingdom)
Lu An, Univ. College London (United Kingdom)
Benjamin T. Cox, Univ. College London (United Kingdom)


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