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Journal of Biomedical Optics

High-resolution contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography in mice retinae
Author(s): Debasish Sen; Elliott D. SoRelle; Orly Liba; Roopa Dalal; Yannis M. Paulus; Tae-Wan Kim; Darius M. Moshfeghi; Adam de la Zerda
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Paper Abstract

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive interferometric imaging modality providing anatomical information at depths of millimeters and a resolution of micrometers. Conventional OCT images limit our knowledge to anatomical structures alone, without any contrast enhancement. Therefore, here we have, for the first time, optimized an OCT-based contrast-enhanced imaging system for imaging single cells and blood vessels in vivo inside the living mouse retina at subnanomolar sensitivity. We used bioconjugated gold nanorods (GNRs) as exogenous OCT contrast agents. Specifically, we used anti-mouse CD45 coated GNRs to label mouse leukocytes and mPEG-coated GNRs to determine sensitivity of GNR detection in vivo inside mice retinae. We corroborated OCT observations with hyperspectral dark-field microscopy of formalin-fixed histological sections. Our results show that mouse leukocytes that otherwise do not produce OCT contrast can be labeled with GNRs leading to significant OCT intensity equivalent to a 0.5 nM GNR solution. Furthermore, GNRs injected intravenously can be detected inside retinal blood vessels at a sensitivity of ∼0.5  nM, and GNR-labeled cells injected intravenously can be detected inside retinal capillaries by enhanced OCT contrast. We envision the unprecedented resolution and sensitivity of functionalized GNRs coupled with OCT to be adopted for longitudinal studies of retinal disorders.

Paper Details

Date Published: 6 June 2016
PDF: 9 pages
J. Biomed. Opt. 21(6) 066002 doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.21.6.066002
Published in: Journal of Biomedical Optics Volume 21, Issue 6
Show Author Affiliations
Debasish Sen, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Elliott D. SoRelle, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Orly Liba, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Roopa Dalal, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Yannis M. Paulus, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Tae-Wan Kim, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Darius M. Moshfeghi, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Adam de la Zerda, Stanford Univ. (United States)

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