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Journal of Biomedical Optics • Open Access

Characterization and standardization of tissue-simulating protoporphyrin IX optical phantoms
Author(s): Mikael Marois; Jaime J. Bravo; Scott C. Davis; Stephen C. Kanick

Paper Abstract

Optical devices for measuring protoporphryin IX (PpIX) fluorescence in tissue are routinely validated by measurements in optical phantoms. Yet there exists limited data to form a consensus on the recipe for phantoms that both mimic the optical properties found in tissue and yield a reliable and stable relationship between PpIX concentration and the fluorescence remission intensity. This study characterizes the influence of multiple phantom components on PpIX fluorescence emission intensity, using Intralipid as the scattering source, bovine whole blood as the background absorber, and Tween as a surfactant to prevent PpIX aggregation. Optical measurements showed a linear proportionality (r<0.99) between fluorescence intensity and PpIX concentration (0.1 to 10  μg/mL) over a range of Intralipid (1 to 2%) and whole blood (0.5 to 3%) for phantoms containing low surfactant (≤0.1%), with fluorescence intensities and scattering and absorption properties stable for 5 h after mixing. The role of surfactant in PpIX phantoms was found to be complex, as aggregation was evident in aqueous nonturbid phantoms with no surfactant (0% Tween), and avoided in phantoms containing Intralipid as the scattering source with no additional or low amounts of added surfactant (≤0.1% Tween). Conversely, phantoms containing higher surfactant content (<0.1% Tween) and whole blood showed interactions that distorted the fluorescence emissions.

Paper Details

Date Published: 11 March 2016
PDF: 9 pages
J. Biomed. Opt. 21(3) 035003 doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.21.3.035003
Published in: Journal of Biomedical Optics Volume 21, Issue 3
Show Author Affiliations
Mikael Marois, Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal (Canada)
Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth (United States)
Jaime J. Bravo, Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal (Canada)
Scott C. Davis, Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth (United States)
Norris Cotton Cancer Ctr. (United States)
Stephen C. Kanick, Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth (United States)
Norris Cotton Cancer Ctr. (United States)

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