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Journal of Biomedical Optics • Open Access

Three-dimensional imaging and uptake of the anticancer drug combretastatin in cell spheroids and photoisomerization in gels with multiphoton excitation
Author(s): Kathrin M. Scherer; Roger H. Bisby; Stanley W. Botchway; John A. Hadfield; John W. Haycock; Anthony W. Parker

Paper Abstract

The uptake of E-combretastatins, potential prodrugs of the anticancer Z-isomers, into multicellular spheroids has been imaged by intrinsic fluorescence in three dimensions using two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging with 625-nm ultrafast femtosecond laser pulses. Uptake is initially observed at the spheroid periphery but extends to the spheroid core within 30 min. Using agarose gels as a three-dimensional model, the conversion of Z(trans)→E(cis) via two-photon photoisomerization is demonstrated and the location of this photochemical process may be precisely selected within the micron scale in all three dimensions at depths up to almost 2 mm. We discuss these results for enhanced tissue penetration at longer near-infrared wavelengths for cancer therapy and up to three-photon excitation and imaging using 930-nm laser pulses with suitable combretastatin analogs.

Paper Details

Date Published: 6 July 2015
PDF: 9 pages
J. Biomed. Opt. 20(7) 078003 doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.20.7.078003
Published in: Journal of Biomedical Optics Volume 20, Issue 7
Show Author Affiliations
Kathrin M. Scherer, STFC Rutherford Appleton Lab. (United Kingdom)
Roger H. Bisby, Univ. of Salford (United Kingdom)
Stanley W. Botchway, STFC Rutherford Appleton Lab. (United Kingdom)
John A. Hadfield, Univ. of Salford (United Kingdom)
John W. Haycock, The Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom)
Anthony W. Parker, STFC Rutherford Appleton Lab. (United Kingdom)

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