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Journal of Biomedical Optics • Open Access

<italic<In vivo</italic< measurements of cutaneous melanin across spatial scales: using multiphoton microscopy and spatial frequency domain spectroscopy
Author(s): Rolf B. Saager; Mihaela Balu; Viera Crosignani; Ata Sharif; Anthony J. Durkin; Kristen M. Kelly; Bruce J. Tromberg

Paper Abstract

The combined use of nonlinear optical microscopy and broadband reflectance techniques to assess melanin concentration and distribution thickness in vivo over the full range of Fitzpatrick skin types is presented. Twelve patients were measured using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) and spatial frequency domain spectroscopy (SFDS) on both dorsal forearm and volar arm, which are generally sun-exposed and non-sun-exposed areas, respectively. Both MPM and SFDS measured melanin volume fractions between ∼5% (skin type I non-sun-exposed) and 20% (skin type VI sun exposed). MPM measured epidermal (anatomical) thickness values ∼30–65  μm, while SFDS measured melanin distribution thickness based on diffuse optical path length. There was a strong correlation between melanin concentration and melanin distribution (epidermal) thickness measurements obtained using the two techniques. While SFDS does not have the ability to match the spatial resolution of MPM, this study demonstrates that melanin content as quantified using SFDS is linearly correlated with epidermal melanin as measured using MPM (R2=0.8895). SFDS melanin distribution thickness is correlated to MPM values (R2=0.8131). These techniques can be used individually and/or in combination to advance our understanding and guide therapies for pigmentation-related conditions as well as light-based treatments across a full range of skin types.

Paper Details

Date Published: 12 June 2015
PDF: 10 pages
J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6) 066005 doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.20.6.066005
Published in: Journal of Biomedical Optics Volume 20, Issue 6
Show Author Affiliations
Rolf B. Saager, Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic (United States)
Mihaela Balu, Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic (United States)
Viera Crosignani, Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic (United States)
Ata Sharif, Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic (United States)
Anthony J. Durkin, Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic (United States)
Kristen M. Kelly, Univ. of California, Irvine School of Medicine (United States)
Univ. of California (United States)
Bruce J. Tromberg, Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic (United States)


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