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Journal of Biomedical Optics • Open Access

Chemical-free inactivated whole influenza virus vaccine prepared by ultrashort pulsed laser treatment
Author(s): Shaw-Wei David Tsen; Nisha Donthi; Victor La; Wen-Han Hsieh; Yen-Der Li; Jayne Knoff; Alexander Chen; Tzyy Choou Wu; Chien-Fu Hung; Samuel Achilefu; Kong Thon Tsen

Paper Abstract

There is an urgent need for rapid methods to develop vaccines in response to emerging viral pathogens. Whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines represent an ideal strategy for this purpose; however, a universal method for producing safe and immunogenic inactivated vaccines is lacking. Conventional pathogen inactivation methods such as formalin, heat, ultraviolet light, and gamma rays cause structural alterations in vaccines that lead to reduced neutralizing antibody specificity, and in some cases, disastrous T helper type 2-mediated immune pathology. We have evaluated the potential of a visible ultrashort pulsed (USP) laser method to generate safe and immunogenic WIV vaccines without adjuvants. Specifically, we demonstrate that vaccination of mice with laser-inactivated H1N1 influenza virus at about a 10-fold lower dose than that required using conventional formalin-inactivated influenza vaccines results in protection against lethal H1N1 challenge in mice. The virus, inactivated by the USP laser irradiation, has been shown to retain its surface protein structure through hemagglutination assay. Unlike conventional inactivation methods, laser treatment did not generate carbonyl groups in protein, thereby reducing the risk of adverse vaccine-elicited T helper type 2 responses. Therefore, USP laser treatment is an attractive potential strategy to generate WIV vaccines with greater potency and safety than vaccines produced by current inactivation techniques.

Paper Details

Date Published: 25 November 2014
PDF: 8 pages
J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5) 051008 doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.20.5.051008
Published in: Journal of Biomedical Optics Volume 20, Issue 5
Show Author Affiliations
Shaw-Wei David Tsen, Washington Univ. School of Medicine in St. Louis (United States)
Nisha Donthi, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (United States)
Victor La, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (United States)
Wen-Han Hsieh, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (United States)
Yen-Der Li, National Taiwan Univ. College of Medicine (Taiwan)
Jayne Knoff, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (United States)
Alexander Chen, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (United States)
Tzyy Choou Wu, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (United States)
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (United States)
Chien-Fu Hung, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
Samuel Achilefu, Washington Univ. School of Medicine in St. Louis (United States)
Kong Thon Tsen, Arizona State Univ. (United States)


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