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Journal of Biomedical Optics • Open Access

Three-dimensional chemical imaging of skin using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy
Author(s): Dane M. Drutis; Thomas M. Hancewicz; Eugene Pashkovski; Lin Feng; Dawn Mihalov; Gary R. Holtom; Kavssery P. Ananthapadmanabhan; X. Sunney Xie; Manoj Misra

Paper Abstract

Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy is used to generate structural and chemical three-dimensional images of native skin. We employed SRS microscopy to investigate the microanatomical features of skin and penetration of topically applied materials. Image depth stacks are collected at distinct wavelengths corresponding to vibrational modes of proteins, lipids, and water in the skin. We observed that corneocytes in stratum corneum are grouped together in clusters, 100 to 250 μm in diameter, separated by 10- to 25-μm-wide microanatomical skin-folds called canyons. These canyons occasionally extend down to depths comparable to that of the dermal–epidermal junction below the flat surface regions in porcine and human skin. SRS imaging shows the distribution of chemical species within cell clusters and canyons. Water is predominately located within the cell clusters, and its concentration rapidly increases at the transition from stratum corneum to viable epidermis. Canyons do not contain detectable levels of water and are rich in lipid material. Oleic acid-d 34 applied to the skin surface lines the canyons down to a depth of 50 μm below the surface of the skin. This observation could have implications on the evaluation of penetration profiles of bioactive materials measured using traditional methods, such as tape-stripping.

Paper Details

Date Published: 23 May 2014
PDF: 6 pages
J. Biomed. Opt. 19(11) 111604 doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.19.11.111604
Published in: Journal of Biomedical Optics Volume 19, Issue 11
Show Author Affiliations
Dane M. Drutis, Unilever Research & Development (United States)
Thomas M. Hancewicz, Unilever Research & Development (United States)
Eugene Pashkovski, Unilever Research and Development (United States)
The Lubrizol Corp. (United States)
Lin Feng, Unilever Research & Development (United States)
Dawn Mihalov, Unilever Research & Development (United States)
Gary R. Holtom, Harvard Univ. (United States)
Kavssery P. Ananthapadmanabhan, Unilever Research & Development (United States)
X. Sunney Xie, Harvard Univ. (United States)
Manoj Misra, Unilever Research and Development (United States)


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