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Journal of Biomedical Optics • Open Access

Diffuse reflectance relations based on diffusion dipole theory for large absorption and reduced scattering
Author(s): Rolf H. Bremmer; Martin J. C. van Gemert; Dirk J. Faber; Ton G. van Leeuwen; Maurice C. Aalders

Paper Abstract

Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, implying that it is limited to tissues where the reduced scattering coefficient dominates over the absorption coefficient. Nevertheless, up to absorption coefficients of 20  mm −1 at reduced scattering coefficients of 1 and 11.5  mm −1 , we observed excellent agreement (r 2 =0.994 ) between reflectance measurements of phantoms and the diffuse reflectance equation proposed by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628–6637 (1999)], derived as an approximation to one of the diffusion dipole equations of Farrell et al. [Med. Phys.19, 879–888 (1992)]. However, two parameters were fitted to all phantom experiments, including strongly absorbing samples, implying that the reflectance equation differs from diffusion theory. Yet, the exact diffusion dipole approximation at high reduced scattering and absorption also showed agreement with the phantom measurements. The mathematical structure of the diffuse reflectance relation used, derived by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628–6637 (1999)], explains this observation. In conclusion, diffuse reflectance relations derived as an approximation to the diffusion dipole theory of Farrell et al. can analyze reflectance ratios accurately, even for much larger absorption than reduced scattering coefficients. This allows calibration of fiber-probe set-ups so that the object’s diffuse reflectance can be related to its absorption even when large. These findings will greatly expand the application of diffuse reflection spectroscopy. In medicine, it may allow the use of blue/green wavelengths and measurements on whole blood, and in forensic science, it may allow inclusion of objects such as blood stains and cloth at crime scenes.

Paper Details

Date Published: 28 August 2013
PDF: 5 pages
J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8) 087007 doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.18.8.087007
Published in: Journal of Biomedical Optics Volume 18, Issue 8
Show Author Affiliations
Rolf H. Bremmer, Academisch Medisch Ctr. (Netherlands)
Martin J. C. van Gemert, Academisch Medisch Ctr. (Netherlands)
Dirk J. Faber, Academisch Medisch Ctr. (Netherlands)
Ton G. van Leeuwen, Academisch Medisch Ctr. (Netherlands)
Maurice C. Aalders, Academisch Medisch Ctr. (Netherlands)

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