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Journal of Biomedical Optics

Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo, online gastric cancer diagnosis during clinical endoscopic examination
Author(s): Shiyamala Duraipandian; Mads Sylvest Bergholt; Wei Zheng; Khek Yu Ho; Ming Teh; Khay Guan Yeoh; Jimmy Bok Yan So; Asim Shabbir; Zhiwei Huang
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Paper Abstract

Optical spectroscopic techniques including reflectance, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy have shown promising potential for in vivo precancer and cancer diagnostics in a variety of organs. However, data-analysis has mostly been limited to post-processing and off-line algorithm development. In this work, we develop a fully automated on-line Raman spectral diagnostics framework integrated with a multimodal image-guided Raman technique for real-time in vivo cancer detection at endoscopy. A total of 2748 in vivo gastric tissue spectra (2465 normal and 283 cancer) were acquired from 305 patients recruited to construct a spectral database for diagnostic algorithms development. The novel diagnostic scheme developed implements on-line preprocessing, outlier detection based on principal component analysis statistics (i.e., Hotelling’s T2 and Q-residuals) for tissue Raman spectra verification as well as for organ specific probabilistic diagnostics using different diagnostic algorithms. Free-running optical diagnosis and processing time of < 0.5  s can be achieved, which is critical to realizing real-time in vivo tissue diagnostics during clinical endoscopic examination. The optimized partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models based on the randomly resampled training database (80% for learning and 20% for testing) provide the diagnostic accuracy of 85.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 82.9% to 88.2%] [sensitivity of 80.5% (95% CI: 71.4% to 89.6%) and specificity of 86.2% (95% CI: 83.6% to 88.7%)] for the detection of gastric cancer. The PLS-DA algorithms are further applied prospectively on 10 gastric patients at gastroscopy, achieving the predictive accuracy of 80.0% (60/75) [sensitivity of 90.0% (27/30) and specificity of 73.3% (33/45)] for in vivo diagnosis of gastric cancer. The receiver operating characteristics curves further confirmed the efficacy of Raman endoscopy together with PLS-DA algorithms for in vivo prospective diagnosis of gastric cancer. This work successfully moves biomedical Raman spectroscopic technique into real-time, on-line clinical cancer diagnosis, especially in routine endoscopic diagnostic applications.

Paper Details

Date Published: 2 August 2012
PDF: 9 pages
J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8) 081418 doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.17.8.081418
Published in: Journal of Biomedical Optics Volume 17, Issue 8
Show Author Affiliations
Shiyamala Duraipandian, National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)
Mads Sylvest Bergholt, National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)
Wei Zheng, National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)
Khek Yu Ho, National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)
Ming Teh, National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)
Khay Guan Yeoh, National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)
Jimmy Bok Yan So, National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)
Asim Shabbir, National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)
Zhiwei Huang, National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)


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