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Journal of Biomedical Optics • Open Access

Noise characteristics of heterodyne/homodyne frequency-domain measurements
Author(s): DongYel Kang; Matthew A. Kupinski

Paper Abstract

We theoretically develop and experimentally validate the noise characteristics of heterodyne and/or homodyne measurements that are widely used in frequency-domain diffusive imaging. The mean and covariance of the modulated heterodyne output are derived by adapting the random amplification of a temporal point process. A multinomial selection rule is applied to the result of the temporal noise analysis to additionally model the spatial distribution of intensified photons measured by a charge-coupled device (CCD), which shows that the photon detection efficiency of CCD pixels plays an important role in the noise property of detected photons. The approach of using a multinomial probability law is validated from experimental results. Also, experimentally measured characteristics of means and variances of homodyne outputs are in agreement with the developed theory. The developed noise model can be applied to all photon amplification processes.

Paper Details

Date Published: 7 February 2012
PDF: 12 pages
J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1) 015002 doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.17.1.015002
Published in: Journal of Biomedical Optics Volume 17, Issue 1
Show Author Affiliations
DongYel Kang, College of Optical Sciences, The Univ. of Arizona (United States)
Matthew A. Kupinski, College of Optical Sciences, The Univ. of Arizona (United States)

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