Optical EngineeringModern trends in microstructures and integrated optics for communication, sensing, and actuation
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Recent progress in micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMSs) has enabled the realization of a variety of novel devices, which, because of their small size and low cost, have the potential to revolutionize the fields of communication, sensing, and actuation. These micro-optical devices can be classified as either free-space optical or guided-wave in nature, and here we focus on the latter. We review the research on this subject and discuss results from our own research. We also identify technology bottlenecks and discuss the recent trends in this dynamic field.