Journal of Electronic ImagingHigh fidelity adaptive vector quantization at very low bit rates for progressive transmission of radiographic images
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An adaptive vector quantizer (VQ) using a clustering technique known as adaptive fuzzy leader clustering (AFLC) that is similar in concept to deterministic annealing (DA) for VQ codebook design has been developed. This vector quantizer, AFLC-VQ, has been designed to vector quantize wavelet decomposed sub images with optimal bit allocation. The high-resolution sub images at each level have been statistically analyzed to conform to generalized Gaussian probability distributions by selecting the optimal number of filter taps. The adaptive characteristics of AFLC-VQ result from AFLC, an algorithm that uses self-organizing neural networks with fuzzy membership values of the input samples for upgrading the cluster centroids based on well known optimization criteria. By generating codebooks containing codewords of varying bits, AFLC-VQ is capable of compressing large color/monochrome medical images at extremely low bit rates (0.1 bpp and less) and yet yielding high fidelity reconstructed images. The quality of the reconstructed images formed by AFLC-VQ has been compared with JPEG and EZW, the standard and the well known wavelet based compression technique (using scalar quantization), respectively, in terms of statistical performance criteria as well as visual perception. AFLC-VQ exhibits much better performance than the above techniques. JPEG and EZW were chosen as comparative benchmarks since these have been used in radiographic image compression. The superior performance of AFLC-VQ over LBG-VQ has been reported in earlier papers.