Optical Engineering • Open AccessGeneralization of the first-order formula for analysis of scan patterns of Risley prisms
A first-order formula for calculations of the direction cosines of the rays refracted by Risley prisms was derived. The formula was obtained by representing the deviation of the ray passing through a prism by the product of rotation matrices, and using the series expansion of the product. It can be applied to the system of an arbitrary number of prisms or a combination of Risley prisms. Related errors were discussed and some numerical calculations were made and compared with the exact solutions using the refraction equation. The scan patterns of a single Risley prism or a combination of two Risley prisms calculated using the generalized first-order formula are in good agreement with the exact solutions.