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Journal of Biomedical Optics

Video-rate fluorescence lifetime imaging camera with CMOS single-photon avalanche diode arrays and high-speed imaging algorithm
Author(s): David U. Li; David Tyndall; Richard Walker; Justin A. Richardson; Robert K. Henderson; Jochen Arlt; David Stoppa; Edoardo Charbon
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Paper Abstract

A high-speed and hardware-only algorithm using a center of mass method has been proposed for single-detector fluorescence lifetime sensing applications. This algorithm is now implemented on a field programmable gate array to provide fast lifetime estimates from a 32 × 32 low dark count 0.13 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) plus time-to-digital converter array. A simple look-up table is included to enhance the lifetime resolvability range and photon economics, making it comparable to the commonly used least-square method and maximum-likelihood estimation based software. To demonstrate its performance, a widefield microscope was adapted to accommodate the SPAD array and image different test samples. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy on fluorescent beads in Rhodamine 6G at a frame rate of 50 fps is also shown.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 September 2011
PDF: 13 pages
J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9) 096012 doi: 10.1117/1.3625288
Published in: Journal of Biomedical Optics Volume 16, Issue 9
Show Author Affiliations
David U. Li, Univ. of Sussex (United Kingdom)
David Tyndall, The Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)
Richard Walker, The Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)
Justin A. Richardson, The Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)
Robert K. Henderson, The Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)
Jochen Arlt, The Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)
David Stoppa, Fondazione Bruno Kessler (Italy)
Edoardo Charbon, Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands)

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