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Optical Engineering

Watermarking in H.264/AVC compressed domain using Exp-Golomb code words mapping
Author(s): Dawen Xu; Rangding Wang
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Paper Abstract

In this paper, a fast watermarking algorithm for the H.264/AVC compressed video using Exponential-Golomb (Exp-Golomb) code words mapping is proposed. During the embedding process, the eligible Exp-Golomb code words of reference frames are first identified, and then the mapping rules between these code words and the watermark bits are established. Watermark embedding is performed by modulating the corresponding Exp-Golomb code words, which is based on the established mapping rules. The watermark information can be extracted directly from the encoded stream without resorting to the original video, and merely requires parsing the Exp-Golomb code from bit stream rather than decoding the video. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking scheme can effectively embed information with no bit rate increase and almost no quality degradation. The algorithm, however, is fragile and re-encoding at alternate bit rates or transcoding removes the watermark.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 September 2011
PDF: 12 pages
Opt. Eng. 50(9) 097402 doi: 10.1117/1.3622759
Published in: Optical Engineering Volume 50, Issue 9
Show Author Affiliations
Dawen Xu, Ningbo Univ. of Technology (China)
Rangding Wang, Ningbo Univ. (China)

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