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Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS

Combined effects of prepulsing and target geometry on efficient extreme ultraviolet production from laser produced plasma experiments and modeling
Author(s): Ahmed Hassanein; Tatyana Sizyuk; Valeryi A. Sizyuk; Sivanandan S. Harilal
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Paper Abstract

Laser produced plasmas (LPPs) are currently a promising source of an efficient extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photon source production for advanced lithography. Optimum laser pulse parameters with adjusted wavelength, energy, and duration for a simple planar or spherical tin target can provide 2% to 3% conversion efficiency (CE) in laboratory experiments. Additional effects such as targets with complex geometry and tin-doped targets using prepulsing of laser beams can significantly increase CE. Recent studies showed that such improvements in an LPP system are due to reduction in laser energy losses by decreasing photons transmission (higher harmonic of Nd:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser) or photons reflection (for CO2 laser). Optimization of target heating using prepulses or ablating low-density and nanoporous tin oxide can further improve LLP sources by creating more efficient plasma plumes and, as a result, increase CE, the most important parameter for EUV sources. We investigated the combined effects of prepulsing with various parameters and different target geometries on EUV conversion efficiency and on energetic ions production. The much higher reflectivity of CO2 laser from a tin target leads to two possible ways for system improvement using prepulses with shorter laser wavelengths or using more complex targets geometries with special grooves as developed previously by the authors.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 July 2011
PDF: 7 pages
J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 10(3) 033002 doi: 10.1117/1.3609043
Published in: Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS Volume 10, Issue 3
Show Author Affiliations
Ahmed Hassanein, Purdue Univ. (United States)
Tatyana Sizyuk, Purdue Univ. (United States)
Valeryi A. Sizyuk, Purdue Univ. (United States)
Sivanandan S. Harilal, Purdue Univ. (United States)

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