Journal of Biomedical Optics • Open AccessMicrofluidic sensing: state of the art fabrication and detection techniques
Here we introduce the existing fabrication techniques, detection methods, and related techniques for microfluidic sensing, with an emphasis on the detection techniques. A general survey and comparison of the fabrication techniques were given, including prototyping (hot embossing, inject molding, and soft lithography) and direct fabrication (laser micromachining, photolithography, lithography, and x-ray lithography) techniques. This is followed by an in-depth look at detection techniques: optical, electrochemical, mass spectrometry, as well as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based sensing approaches and related techniques. In the end, we highlight several of the most important issues for future work on microfluidic sensing. This article aims at providing a tutorial review with both introductory materials and inspiring information on microfluidic fabrication and sensing for nonspecialists.