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Optical Engineering

Toward a two-dimensional barcode with visual information using perceptual shaping watermarking in mobile applications
Author(s): Jen-Chang Liu; Hsiang-An Shieh
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Paper Abstract

Traditional two-dimensional (2-D) barcodes, such as the QR code and PDF417, do not carry visual information. This work proposes a visually meaningful 2-D barcode (or 2-D image code) that carries not only hidden information, but also visual information. Watermarking is employed to hide information in a meaningful cover image to produce the 2-D image code. The 2-D image code can be printed or displayed and then captured using a camera-equipped mobile device. The hidden information is extracted for innovative applications. To resist distortions in the print-and-photo process, a perceptual shaping algorithm, based on Watson's DCT-based perceptual model, is proposed for use in the data hiding procedure. The detection performance that can be achieved using two classes of position-detection patterns is evaluated, and the best pattern is then used as a part of the 2-D image code. A web service is provided for generating the 2-D image codes and a Java-based decoder is developed for mobile phones. The results of practical experiments reveal the applicability, robustness, and high capacity of the proposed 2-D image code.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 January 2011
PDF: 11 pages
Opt. Eng. 50(1) 017002 doi: 10.1117/1.3529430
Published in: Optical Engineering Volume 50, Issue 1
Show Author Affiliations
Jen-Chang Liu, National Chi Nan Univ. (Taiwan)
Hsiang-An Shieh, National Chi Nan Univ. (Taiwan)


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