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Journal of Biomedical Optics

Micromirror-scanned dual-axis confocal microscope utilizing a gradient-index relay lens for image guidance during brain surgery
Author(s): Jonathan T. Liu; Michael J. Mandella; Nathan O. Loewke; Henry Haeberle; Hyejun Ra; Wibool Piyawattanametha; Olav D. Solgaard; Gordon S. Kino; Christopher H. Contag
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Paper Abstract

A fluorescence confocal microscope incorporating a 1.8-mm-diam gradient-index relay lens is developed for in vivo histological guidance during resection of brain tumors. The microscope utilizes a dual-axis confocal architecture to efficiently reject out-of-focus light for high-contrast optical sectioning. A biaxial microelectromechanical system (MEMS) scanning mirror is actuated at resonance along each axis to achieve a large field of view with low-voltage waveforms. The unstable Lissajous scan, which results from actuating the orthogonal axes of the MEMS mirror at highly disparate resonance frequencies, is optimized to fully sample 500×500 pixels at two frames per second. Optically sectioned fluorescence images of brain tissues are obtained in living mice to demonstrate the utility of this microscope for image-guided resections.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 March 2010
PDF: 5 pages
J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2) 026029 doi: 10.1117/1.3386055
Published in: Journal of Biomedical Optics Volume 15, Issue 2
Show Author Affiliations
Jonathan T. Liu, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Michael J. Mandella, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Nathan O. Loewke, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Henry Haeberle, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Hyejun Ra, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Wibool Piyawattanametha, Stanford Univ. School of Medicine (United States)
Olav D. Solgaard, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Gordon S. Kino, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Christopher H. Contag, Stanford Univ. School of Medicine (United States)

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