Optical EngineeringGeneration and transmission of multilevel quadrature amplitude modulation formats using only one optical modulator: MATLAB Simulink simulation models
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A geometrical and phasor representation technique is presented to illustrate the modulation of the lightwave carrier to generate quadrature amplitude modulated (QAM) signals. The modulation of the amplitude and phase of the lightwave carrier is implemented using only one dual-drive Mach-Zehnder interferometric modulator (MZIM) with the assistance of phasor techniques. Any multilevel modulation scheme can be generated, but we illustrate specifically, the multilevel amplitude and differential phase shift keying (MADPSK) signals. The driving voltage levels are estimated for driving the traveling wave electrodes of the modulator. Phasor diagrams are extensively used to demonstrate the effectiveness of modulation schemes. MATLAB Simulink models are formed to generate the multilevel modulation formats, transmission, and detection in optically amplified fiber communication systems. Transmission performance is obtained for the multilevel optical signals and proven to be equivalent or better than those of binary level with equivalent bit rate. Further, the resilience to nonlinear effects is much higher for MADPSK of 50% and 33% pulse width as compared to non-return-to-zero (NRZ) pulse shaping.