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Journal of Biomedical Optics

Qualitative detection of single submicron and nanoparticles in human skin by scanning transmission x-ray microscopy
Author(s): Christina M. Graf; Martina C. Meinke; Qi Gao; Sabrina Hadam; Jörg Raabe; Wolfram Sterry; Ulrike Blume-Peytavi; Jürgen M. Lademann; Eckart Ruhl; Annika Vogt
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Paper Abstract

First results on single particle detection in human skin samples by x-ray microscopy are reported. 94±6 and 161±13 nm gold core particles with silica shells and 298±11 nm silica particles coated with a gold shell on ultramicrotome sections of human skin were determined. The particles were applied on fresh intact skin samples, which were sectioned prior to imaging. After screening the sections by conventional microscopy techniques, defined areas of interest were qualitatively investigated by scanning transmission x-ray microscopy at the Swiss Light Source. In studies on the percutaneous penetration of 161±13 nm particles on human skin samples, x-ray microscopy yielded high-resolution images of single particles spreading on the superficial layer of the stratum corneum and on the epithelium in superficial parts of hair follicles. No deeper penetration was observed. The present work using x-ray microscopy provides the unique opportunity to study qualitative penetration processes and membrane-particle interactions on the level of single particles. This goes beyond present approaches using optical microscopy. Further improvement of this approach will allow one to study particles with different physicochemical properties and surface modifications, including responses of the exposed tissue.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 March 2009
PDF: 9 pages
J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2) 021015 doi: 10.1117/1.3078811
Published in: Journal of Biomedical Optics Volume 14, Issue 2
Show Author Affiliations
Christina M. Graf, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)
Martina C. Meinke, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany)
Qi Gao, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)
Sabrina Hadam, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany)
Jörg Raabe, Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland)
Wolfram Sterry, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany)
Ulrike Blume-Peytavi, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany)
Jürgen M. Lademann, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany)
Eckart Ruhl, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)
Annika Vogt, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany)

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