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Journal of Biomedical Optics

Efficient rejection of scattered light enables deep optical sectioning in turbid media with low-numerical-aperture optics in a dual-axis confocal architecture
Author(s): Jonathan T. C. Liu; Michael J. Mandella; James M. Crawford; Christopher H. Contag; Thomas D. Wang; Gordon S. Kino
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Paper Abstract

Miniature endoscopic microscopes, with subcellular imaging capabilities, will enable in vivo detection of molecularly-targeted fluorescent probes for early disease detection. To optimize a dual-axis confocal microscope (DACM) design for this purpose, we use a tabletop instrument to determine the ability of this technology to perform optical sectioning deep within tissue. First, we determine how tissue scattering deteriorates the diffraction-limited transverse and vertical responses in reflectance imaging. Specifically, the vertical response of a DACM to a plane reflector is measured at various depths in a scattering phantom and compared with diffraction theory and Monte Carlo scattering simulations. Similarly, transverse line scans across a knife-edge target are performed at various depths in a scattering phantom. Second, as a practical demonstration of deep-tissue fluorescence microscopy that corroborates the findings from our scattering experiments, 3-D fluorescence images are obtained in thick human gastrointestinal mucosal specimens. Our results demonstrate efficient rejection of scattered light in a DACM, which enables deep optical sectioning in tissue with subcellular resolution that can distinguish between normal and premalignant pathologies.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 May 2008
PDF: 11 pages
J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3) 034020 doi: 10.1117/1.2939428
Published in: Journal of Biomedical Optics Volume 13, Issue 3
Show Author Affiliations
Jonathan T. C. Liu, Stanford Univ. (United States)
Michael J. Mandella, Stanford Univ. (United States)
James M. Crawford, Univ. of Florida (United States)
Christopher H. Contag, Stanford Univ. School of Medicine (United States)
Thomas D. Wang, Univ. of Michigan (United States)
Gordon S. Kino, Stanford Univ. (United States)

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