Journal of Applied Remote SensingAnalysis of advanced synthetic aperture radar data for geometric accuracy and backscattering signatures over the Kuwait desert
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Seven scenes of ASAR images acquired by ENVISAT satellite during the time period April 2004 - June 2005 have been analyzed to assess the geo-coding accuracy of the data. Eighty ground control points (GCPs) spread all over Kuwait were measured using Trimble 5700 GPS which are mainly the road intersections. The same road intersections were identified in the ASAR image and its geo-locations were measured using BEST software package provided by the European Space Agency. The GPS and BEST results were compared to estimate the geo-location accuracy of ASAR data. The average accuracy in geo-coding is estimated to be 54 m in both azimuth and range directions. These results are in agreement with the results reported in the literature. Twenty well-defined targets (built-up areas, grass lands, airports, agricultural plots, desert soils, etc.) were considered for the backscattering signature study. The size of each target varies from 50,000 to 100,000 Single Look Complex (SLC) pixels for good statistical accuracy. It has been estimated that the Standard Deviation (Std) of backscatter signature is 1.3% (after speckle filtering) of the mean value. The temporal / spatial variability of the signatures are within the Std. During the study period, the soil moisture varied from 6% to 10% as estimated from AMSR-E on board Acqua satellite.