Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMSRequirements of MEMS membrane mirrors for focus adjustment and aberration correction in endoscopic confocal and optical coherence tomography imaging instruments
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We explore the use of deformable membrane mirrors for primary focus control and spherical aberration correction in confocal microscopes and optical coherence tomography instruments that are miniaturized for in-situ imaging. Membrane requirements to achieve specified system performance are explored for both high and low numerical aperture regimes. Examples of both confocal imaging and focus-tracking optical coherence tomography using varifocus silicon nitride MEMS mirrors are presented. It is envisioned that future instruments with enhanced-stroke adaptive membrane mirrors will provide high fidelity microscopy and optical coherence tomography for diagnostic imaging of intact, living tissue.