Optical EngineeringDesign methodology of annealed H+ waveguides in ferroelectric LiNbO3
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Relations between fabrication conditions and optical characteristics of planar waveguides made by proton exchange in benzoic acid are documented in the literature, but reports on the characterization of waveguide fabrication processes, performed in a systematic way, could not be found, resulting in the need to combine data from several authors. Discrepancies among results from different researches are evident, resulting from different experimental methodologies and calibration of equipment. Therefore, aiming at extracting a consistent data set, optical characterization of the refractive index profile was employed to study series of samples. The objective was to develop a methodology for fabrication of proton-exchanged channel waveguides in LiNbO3 operating in the single-mode regime at several wavelengths, with specific characteristics required to optimize integrated devices. To achieve this, it is necessary to obtain the relations between the optical characteristics of the waveguides and their fabrication conditions, and to introduce models of the waveguide formation process.