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Optical Engineering

Robust watermarking scheme for binary images using a slice-based large-cluster algorithm with a Hamming Code
Author(s): Wen-Yuan Chen; Chen-Chung Liu
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Paper Abstract

The problems with binary watermarking schemes are that they have only a small amount of embeddable space and are not robust enough. We develop a slice-based large-cluster algorithm (SBLCA) to construct a robust watermarking scheme for binary images. In SBLCA, a small-amount cluster selection (SACS) strategy is used to search for a feasible slice in a large-cluster flappable-pixel decision (LCFPD) method, which is used to search for the best location for concealing a secret bit from a selected slice. This method has four major advantages over the others: (a) SBLCA has a simple and effective decision function to select appropriate concealment locations, (b) SBLCA utilizes a blind watermarking scheme without the original image in the watermark extracting process, (c) SBLCA uses slice-based shuffling capability to transfer the regular image into a hash state without remembering the state before shuffling, and finally, (d) SBLCA has enough embeddable space that every 64 pixels could accommodate a secret bit of the binary image. Furthermore, empirical results on test images reveal that our approach is a robust watermarking scheme for binary images.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 January 2006
PDF: 10 pages
Opt. Eng. 45(1) 017005 doi: 10.1117/1.2150810
Published in: Optical Engineering Volume 45, Issue 1
Show Author Affiliations
Wen-Yuan Chen, National Chin-Yi Institute of Technology (Taiwan)
Chen-Chung Liu, National Chin-Yi Institute of Technology (Taiwan)


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