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Optical Engineering

Transmission-electron-microscopy observation of dislocation networks of oxide vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers
Author(s): Toru Itakura; Yoshihiko Seyama; Taichi Terada; Koshi Ueda
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Paper Abstract

Oxide vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are widely used in high-speed fiber optical communications. Burn-in tests are run on oxide VCSELs to weed out defective devices, thereby fulfilling the related reliability requirements. Nevertheless, some oxide VCSELs fail in the field. Oxide VCSELs that failed in the field were examined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Besides cross-sectional views, plan views of the entire active region were observed. Development of a dislocation network in the active region was found in all samples, and that is the cause of the failures. The Burgers vectors of these dislocations are parallel to [101]. Although the trigger of the dislocations has not been identified, electrostatic discharge (ESD) does not cause the dislocation in our investigated devices, since no ESD-damaged region was found. Strain and/or crystal defects introduced during VCSEL fabrication are considered to be the cause.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 January 2006
PDF: 4 pages
Opt. Eng. 45(1) 014201 doi: 10.1117/1.2150232
Published in: Optical Engineering Volume 45, Issue 1
Show Author Affiliations
Toru Itakura, Fujitsu Ltd. (Japan)
Yoshihiko Seyama, Fujitsu Ltd. (Japan)
Taichi Terada, Advantest Corp. (Japan)
Koshi Ueda, Advantest Corp. (Japan)

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