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Journal of Biomedical Optics

Four-dimensional cardiac imaging in living embryos via postacquisition synchronization of nongated slice sequences
Author(s): Michael Liebling; Arian S. Forouhar; Morteza Gharib; Scott E. Fraser; Mary E. Dickinson
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Paper Abstract

Being able to acquire, visualize, and analyze 3D time series (4D data) from living embryos makes it possible to understand complex dynamic movements at early stages of embryonic development. Despite recent technological breakthroughs in 2D dynamic imaging, confocal microscopes remain quite slow at capturing optical sections at successive depths. However, when the studied motion is periodic--such as for a beating heart--a way to circumvent this problem is to acquire, successively, sets of 2D+time slice sequences at increasing depths over at least one time period and later rearrange them to recover a 3D+time sequence. In other imaging modalities at macroscopic scales, external gating signals, e.g., an electro-cardiogram, have been used to achieve proper synchronization. Since gating signals are either unavailable or cumbersome to acquire in microscopic organisms, we have developed a procedure to reconstruct volumes based solely on the information contained in the image sequences. The central part of the algorithm is a least-squares minimization of an objective criterion that depends on the similarity between the data from neighboring depths. Owing to a wavelet-based multiresolution approach, our method is robust to common confocal microscopy artifacts. We validate the procedure on both simulated data and in vivo measurements from living zebrafish embryos.

Paper Details

Date Published: 1 September 2005
PDF: 10 pages
J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5) 054001 doi: 10.1117/1.2061567
Published in: Journal of Biomedical Optics Volume 10, Issue 5
Show Author Affiliations
Michael Liebling, California Institute of Technology (United States)
Arian S. Forouhar, California Institute of Technology (United States)
Morteza Gharib, California Institute of Technology (United States)
Scott E. Fraser, California Institute of Technology (United States)
Mary E. Dickinson, Baylor College of Medicine (United States)

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