Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMSGeneral model for estimating bubble dissolution and droplet evaporation times
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Bubbles and droplets may be detrimental to the successful implementation of immersion lithography, depending in part on their lifetime in the system. In this work, a model is developed to estimate the dissolution times of nitrogen bubbles in pure water that may be free-floating or adhered to a solid surface. The model is then extended to small free and adhered droplets. Bubble dissolution and droplet evaporation times for typical immersion lithography conditions are presented.