Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMSLiquid immersion lithography using water as an immersion liquid: role of orientation contributions to light scattering at 193 nm
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The orientation and center-of-mass contributions of water to light scattering are calculated based on the known anisotropy of the polarizability of the water molecule. Further, the polarization ratio under 90-deg scattering is calculated and the relation between orientational and center-off-mass contributions for different polarization directions is evaluated. An experiment is proposed that enables us to separate the different scattering contributions. While the amount of scattering due to molecular orientations seems to be still moderate for water, it is expected to be larger for most fluids, like fluorinated polymers.