Optical EngineeringNanotechnology for optics is a phase-length-time sandwich
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Decreasing feature sizes due to advances in nanotechnology place a premium on careful treatment of phase, length, and time in optics. All three quantities are intermeshed due to morphology at the nanometer length scale. After examining the characteristics of the responses of columnar thin films and chiral sculptured thin films to optical pulses and beams, we put forward the thesis that nanotechnology for optics is a phase-length-time sandwich.